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Chapter 1

The States of Concern report

A yearly research report published by the Educator’s School Safety Network that aggregates and analyzes data pertaining to threats and incidents of violence in U.S. schools.


The School-Based Bomb Incidents and Threats report

A yearly research report published by the Educator’s School Safety Network that aggregates and analyzes data pertaining to school-based bomb threats and incidents.


Letter from then Secretary of Education John B. King Jr.

An advisement to schools and universities regarding the role of school resource officers.


SECURe Policy Rubric

A Department of Justice rubric for states and local governments “looking to develop or revise statutes, regulations, and written agreements related to the appropriate incorporation of school-based law enforcement officers.”


Visitor Entry Screening training

Education-based training for staff who will be using visitor entry systems or screening visitors to school buildings.


Supplemental bibliography and links for other related resources

Additional resources and materials related to topics discussed in Chapter 1.

American Association of School Administrators. (2010, May 18). School budgets 101.

Jones, J. M. (Ed.). (2017, August 17). Parental fear about school safety back to pre-Newtown level

Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4): 370–396.

McGurk, H., & Hurry, J. (1995). Project Charlie: An evaluation of a life skills drug education programme for primary students. London: Drugs Prevention Initiative.

New York Police Department Counterterrorism Bureau. (2011, January 20). Active shooter: Recommendations and analysis for risk mitigation. NY: Author.

Prevention Institute. (n.d.).Violence and learning [Fact sheet]. Oakland, CA: Author.

Schlecty, P. (2005). Creating great schools: Six critical systems at the heart of educational innovation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Sherwood, B. (2009). The survivors club: The secrets and science that could save your life. New York: Grand Central Publishing.

Soergel, A. (2017, September 8). 5 things to know about the economy this week. U.S. News and World Report. 

Stephens, R. D. (n.d.). Director’s message. National School Safety Center (website).

U.S. Department of Education. (2016). Obama administration releases resources for schools and college to ensure appropriate use of school resource officers and campus police [Press release]. Washington, DC: Author. 


 

Chapter 2


Checklist-What Makes a Good Vulnerability Assessment?

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A comprehensive, education-based vulnerability assessment is an important starting point for improving school safety.  Use this checklist to assist in planning and to determine whether your school has assessed the most critical components.


Threat Assessment Management training

Education-based training for threat assessment team members that combines content instruction, implementation strategies, and logistical concerns.


Tip Sheet for Intervention and Support

Tip Sheet for Interventions and Supports
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Strategies and suggestions for creating and implementing appropriate supports and intervention related to the management of individuals of concern.


Planning, Creating, Training, and Implementing a Threat Assessment Team

A planning guide for getting started on threat assessment.


Enhancing School Safety Using a Threat Assessment Model: An Operational Guide for Preventing Targeted School Violence

In July of 2018, the U.S. Secret Service and Department of Homeland Security’s National Threat Assessment Center released a school-specific guide to threat assessment.

This publication, as well as the summary brief that accompanies it, provides the foundational underpinnings of threat assessment and management.


Supplemental bibliography and links for other related resources

Additional resources and materials related to topics discussed in Chapter 2.

Goodrum, S., & Woodward, W. (2016, January). Report on the Arapahoe High School shooting: Lessons learned on information sharing, threat assessment, and systems integrity. Boulder, CO: University of Colorado Boulder.

U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Office of Safe and Healthy Students. (2013). Guide for developing high-quality school emergency operations plans. Washington, DC: Authors.

Vossekuil, B., Fein, R., Reddy, M., Borum, R., & Modzeleski, W. (2002). The final report and findings of the Safe School Initiative: Implications for the prevention of school attacks in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Secret Service and U.S. Department of Education.


Chapter 3


Guide for Developing High-Quality School Emergency Operations Plans.

 A planning guide designed for educational leaders to assist in creating, implementing, and evaluating a comprehensive, all-hazards emergency operations plan.


Making Sense of the “Guide for Developing High-Quality School Emergency Operations Plans"

According to the Office of Safe and Healthy Schools, an updated version of this guide for K-12 schools will be published soon. Once this update has occurred, this planning guide will be revised and made available.


Risk Matrix Worksheet

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What vulnerabilities and threats does your school face? This worksheet is for use in planning, vulnerability assessments, and professional development.


Incident Command Structure diagram

A PDF of the incident command structure referenced in the chapter.


What Does ICS Look Like in Schools?

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A graphical representation that applies incident command to a typical school or district’s organizational structure.


Components of Comprehensive School and School District Emergency Management Plans

A detailed description of the components of comprehensive, all-hazards emergency operation and management plans for use at building and district levels.


Effective Supplemental Activities to Support Your School’s EOP

A collection of suggestions, samples, and links for strategies and activities to support emergency planning.


Supplemental bibliography and links for other related resources

Additional and updated resources and materials related to topics discussed in Chapter 3.

Brock, S. E., Nickerson, A. B., Reeves, M. A., Jimerson, S. R., Lieberman, R. A., & Feinberg, T. A. (2009). School crisis prevention and intervention. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

Brymer, M., Jacobs. A., Layne, C., Pynoos, R., Ruzek. J., Steinberg, A., et al. (2006). Psychological first aid: Field operations guide (2nd ed.). Rockville, MD: National Child Traumatic Stress Network and National Center for PTSD.

Dorn, M., & Dorn, C. (2005). Innocent targets: When terrorism comes to school. Macon, GA: Safe Havens International.

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). (2010, November). Developing and Maintaining Emergency Operations Plans: Comprehensive Preparedness Guide  (CPG 101, Version 2.0). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). (2011, March). Sample school emergency operations plan E/L361 and G364: Multihazard emergency planning for schools. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

Kentucky Center for School Safety. (2016). Emergency management resources. Richmond, KY:

U.S. Department of Homeland Security. (2017, September). Plan and prepare for disasters 


Chapter 4


A Common Vocabulary for Crisis Response in Schools

A glossary of suggested crisis-management terms for use in developing a common vocabulary related to school safety.


Empowered or Intimidated?: A Self-Assessment Inventory

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School safety procedures and training should empower educators, not intimidate them. Use this inventory to reflect on whether the safety policies, procedures, and training in your school empowers or intimidates.


Supplemental bibliography and links for other related resources

Additional resources and materials related to topics discussed in Chapter 4.

Blair, J. P., Martaindale, M. H., & Nichols, T. (2014, January). Active shooter events from 2000 to 2012. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.

Cowan, D., & Kuenster, J. (1996). To sleep with the angels: The story of a fire. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee.


Chapter 5


Post-incident debriefings and reports

Reports from mass-casualty and school shooting incidents, including the shootings at Columbine High School, Virginia Tech, and Sandy Hook Elementary.


Low-Cost, Effective Violence Prevention Strategies That Work

A review of effective strategies for violence prevention in schools; includes related materials, links, and suggestions for implementation.


Leveled-lockdown graphic

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A PDF graphic outlining leveled lockdown that can be used as a classroom sign or professional development handout.


Self-Assessment - Is Our Response Effective? 

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Are your school's protocols for active shooter response and lockdown up to date and in compliance with best practices? This self-assessment checklist will help you to assess the effectiveness of a school’s procedures in these critical areas.


Lockdown Enhancements and Alternatives training

Education-based training on lockdown enhancements and active shooter response.


Supplemental bibliography and links for other related resources

Additional resources and materials related to topics discussed in chapter 5.

Blair, J. P., & Schweit, K. W. (2014). A study of active shooter incidents, 2000–2013. Washington, DC: Texas State University and Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Department of Justice.

Dorn, M. (2015, January). Active shooter training under fire again. School Safety Monthly, 4–6.

Dorn, M. (2015, May 13). ALICE training injury lawsuit filed by school employee [blog post]. 

Governors Columbine Review Commission. (2001). The report of Governor Bill Owens’ Columbine Review Commission. Denver: 

McFarland, J., Hussar, B., de Brey, C., Snyder, T., Wang, X., Wilkinson-Flicker, S., et al. (2017). The condition of education 2017 (NCES 2017- 144). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. 

Office of Emergency Communications. (2010, June). Plain language frequently asked questions (FAQs). Washington, DC: Department of Homeland Security.

Sedensky, S. J. (2013). Report of the state’s attorney for the judicial district of Danbury on the shootings at Sandy Hook Elementary School and 36 Yogananda Street, Newtown, Connecticut on December 14, 2012. Danbury, CT: Office of the State’s Attorney.

Virginia Tech Review Panel. (2007, April 16). Mass shootings at Virginia Tech. Available:

Zhang, A., Musu-Gillette, L., & Oudekerk, B.A. (2016). Indicators of school crime and safety: 2015 (NCES 2016-079/NCJ 249758). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education; and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.


Chapter 6


After-Hours Crisis Response training

Education-based training on planning for and managing crisis response outside of traditional school hours.


After-Hours Crisis Response Self-Assessment

A self-assessment checklist to critically evaluate the effectiveness of a school’s after-hours crisis response capabilities.


An After-Hours Crisis Response Planning Guide for Schools

A planning guide designed for educational leaders to assist in creating, implementing, and evaluating effective crisis response procedures outside of traditional school hours.


The School-Based Bomb Incidents and Threats report

An annual research report published by the Educator’s School Safety Network that aggregates and analyzes data pertaining to school-based bomb threats and incidents.


School-Based Bomb Incident Management training

Education-based training on planning for and responding to bomb incidents, including threats, suspicious items, and detonations.


Supplemental bibliography and links for other related resources

Additional resources and materials related to topics discussed in Chapter 6.

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. (2003). Bomb threat response: An interactive planning tool for schools [CD-ROM]. Washington, DC: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, U.S. Department of the Treasury; and the Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program, U.S. Department of Education.

Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC). (2010, November). Incident response to terrorist bombings (National Domestic Preparedness Consortium Publication No. PER 230-1). Socorro, NM:

Green, E. (2017, August 8). The JCC bomb-threat suspect had a client. The Atlantic

Newman, G. R. (2011, August). Bomb threats in schools (Publication No. 32). Albany, NY: Center for Problem-Oriented Policing.


Chapter 7


Emergency Communication Templates

Samples and tips for creating emergency communication templates.


Implementing Family Emergency Plans with School Staff Members

A checklist with suggestions for ensuring that all staff members have active, updated family emergency plans.


Family Emergency Plan Templates

Samples and templates for creating family emergency plans.


Supplemental bibliography and links for other related resources

Additional resources and materials related to topics discussed in chapter 7.


Chapter 8

A Continuity of Operations Planning Guide for Schools

A planning guide designed for educational leaders to assist in creating, implementing, and evaluating a continuity of operations plan.


Standard Reunification Method Planning Guide

A link to downloadable materials for parent reunification from the “I Love U Guys” Foundation.


Parent Reunification training

Education-based training on the facility, staffing, accountability, and logistical concerns involved in planning and implementing parent reunification.


The PREPaRE Model

Information on the National Association of School Psychologists’ PREPaRE Model for crisis intervention and recovery.


Supplemental bibliography and links for other related resources--Additional resources and materials related to topics discussed in chapter 8.

Brock, S., Nickerson, A., Louvar Reeves, M., Conolly, C., Jimerson, S., Pesce, R., & Lazzaro, B. (2016). School crisis prevention and intervention: The PREPaRE model (2nd ed.). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). (2001). Mental health and mass violence: Evidence-based early psychological intervention for victims/survivors of mass violence. A workshop to reach consensus on best practices. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Save the Children. (2013). Unaccounted for: A national report card on protecting children in disasters. Washington, DC: Author.