This guide is an introduction to threat assessment management and provides an education-focused overview of how threat assessment teams work in a school setting. Guidance, resources, and best practices for creating and implementing threat assessment in your school or district are discussed.
Threat Assessment and Management Resources
Fein, Vossekuil, and Holden provide a summary overview of the threat assessment process from a law enforcement perspective in Threat Assessment: An Approach to Prevent Targeted Violence, published in the National Institute of Justice’s Research in Action.
Department of Homeland Security’s National Threat Assessment Center publication “Mass Attacks in Public Spaces - 2017”.
Additional reports of original research on the Virginia Student Threat Assessment Guidelines and threat assessment model are also available as part of the University of Virginia’s field test findings.
Tipsheet for creating supports and interventions
A Checklist for K-12 Schools Implementing a Student Threat Assessment Process by United Educators Insurance provides an overview of the threat assessment process that lists specific actions and/or activities necessary to create or evaluate a threat assessment program.
Questions and concerns about FERPA protections often arise as part of the threat assessment planning process. An overview of FERPA protections can be found in the Department of Education’s publication Balancing Student Privacy and School Safety: A Guide to the “Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act” for Elementary and Secondary Schools.
Assistance in developing a common vocabulary for policy and procedure developed can be found in a "Threat Assessment Glossary" published the University of Nebraska Public Policy Center.
The Colorado School Safety Resource Center’s Essentials of School Threat Assessment: Preventing Targeted School Violence contains a “Cycle of Threat Assessment” graphic and a sample “Response, Management and Support Plan” that is useful for planning purposes.
A number of threat assessment and management instruments and/or checklists exist that may serve as a basis for the development of threat assessment protocols and procedures. These range from sample interview questions to actual documentation forms. Please note that these checklists and forms should not be adopted or applied without adequate training and planning.
The Campus Threat Assessment & Management Instrument developed by Bolante, Van Dreal, and Okada of the Salem-Keizer School District in Salem, Oregon.
Eleven Questions to Guide Data Collection in a Threat Assessment Inquiry taken from the Threat Assessment Guide from the Department of Education and the United States Secret Service.
Brief Interview Outline for Individual Under Concern from the Kentucky Center for School Safety’s 2008 Emergency Management Resource Guide.
Student Threat Documentation form developed by the University of Virginia’s Curry School of Education.
Checklist for Threat Assessment and Management used by the Los Angeles Unified School District.
Threat Assessment Template developed by the Indiana Department of Education